On the Mures valley, at Turdas, on Cerna valley, on the Geoagiu valley and many other places in the county of Hunedoara, especially in caves have been found numerous prehistoric and preRoman items some of which are preserved in the museum at Deva.
Territory of Hunedoara has been the center of preRoman Dacia, Sarmizegetusa being the capital of Roman Dacia. Situated in full plane (like all new Roman camps) the ancient city was developed around a fortification built to guard the most direct route leading from the bridge over the Danube towards the center of Dacia. The road started from Drobeta (Turnu Severin) to Tibiscum (Caransebes) crossed the mountains to Tapae (Iron Gate) and through Sarmizegetusa headed Strei valley and Mures valleyto Apulum (Alba Iulia) and Potaissa (Turda).
The city was founded around the year 110 of his emperor Traian and it was called in the beginning Colonia Traiana Ulpia. Adding them later to name the capital of Decebal, his name became Colonia Ulpia Dacia Traiana Augusta Sarmizegetusa or abbreviated Sarmizegetusa Colonia. The city becomes in the IIIth century metropolis and receives Jus Italicum, inhabitants were exempted from tax finance. City develop until 271, when Roman authorities left Dacia and the city starts to decade.
Archaeological digging has revealed part of the fortress walls and a few public buildings and private proving his flourishing development. They have also put out Amphitheater debris, a building of stone and brick where took place gladiators fights and representations of actors, which could be viewed by 4000-5000 spectators.
One may visit: Museum in the center of the commune (a section of the county Deva Museum ) museum includes only material from archaeological Sarmizegetusa, a part of the city, where building Augustalilor notice (of the highest priestly college) and Light (square) Amphitheater.
Fortifications from Gradistea-the hillock of the mountains between Strei and Orastioara, gold coins and other objects discovered bring out the high level of civilization known by the dacian societyif before they fall under Roman domination. The old princely land and the Romanian principalities in the Hateg Country and Apuseni Mountains preserves important monuments of material culture (Densus, Strei, Criscior, Ribita) which are testimonies of continuous living and affirmation of Romanians in these places.
In the county of Constanta are being keept many human traces dating centuries before our era. Archaeological remains attest that 2500 years ago it have been established trade links between the local Geto-Dacian population living on that territory and navigators merchants of the South Seas. These links favored the commercial development of important commercial center on the Black Sea shoreline, fortresses appeared and have developed: Histria (VII-IV century BC), Callatis (VI century BC), Tomis (VI century BC) .
In Ist century AC in these parts came Roman domination. At the end of XIVth century (1388) Constanta county was under the domination of Mircea the Old, ruler over both sides “of the Delta to the Great Sea. In the second decade of XIVth century the land came under the Turkish domination, and they returned to Romania after the war for independence (1878). Along with many vestiges of the past (Roman building with mosaic, the second basilica remains dated from sec.II-III of our era, the great sacrofag with symbols of the cult of Men, the Phrygian god, monument of Quadratus, the fortress walls of Tomis, meet many cultural and scientific. Istria buildings, old castles, Callatis are a testimony of ancient civilization on this territory, particularly attractive for any tourist.
The results of archaeological discoveries attest that the Mures County, starting at the end of the carved stone age was permanently inhabited. The valleys of Mures river, Olt, Tarnave and those of their affluents, the forests and pastures have provided favorable conditions for living, being at the same time spared of invaders. This explains the multitude of old settlements and permanent population of the county. The oldest material traces date from the Vith millennium BC attesting the continuity and social development, confirmed by the existence of different cultures and settlements.
In the Iron Age, Transylvania was the Thracian-Geto-Dacian tribes, forming in the IIIrd century BC an independent state. Dacian settlements were evidenced in several places of the county. High level of development of society in Roman Dacia is demonstrated by the number of production tools and utensils, artistic worked that were found. Until now have been identified more than 170 pots, with various forms. The revealed material items are to be found at the county museum in Targu-Mures. There is a remarkable work in alabaster the head of the Iunona goddess which was found in the former Roman settlement of Cristesti, imitation pottery of “terra sigillata”, more rushlights, tools of bronze and iron, different coins.
Archaeological digging in the Iasi county have revealed material evidence which proves the existence of human settlements since the Paleolithic. In the Valea Lupului village were discovered various items among them chip of flint, which served as a knife or scraper.
Neolithic age is mainly present through Cucuteni culture, whose traces have been discovered in the Cucuteni village. Archaeological remains attest the founding of human living within the county of Iasi also in the Bronze Age and Iron Age.
The written sources- the well known Maramures’s Diploma – mention for the first time these places about 800 years ago; the unwritten sources – traditions and legends- place them somewhere in the beginning of the formation of Romanian nation, and the archeology prove to be a territory populated since the primitive period, in the Neolithic. The Bronze Age is proven by the ovens of manufacture discovered at Valea Chioarului, Sapanta, Calinesti, Targu Lapus and in other places. At Oncesti was discovered a Dacian settlement from Ist century BCE. Although Maramures remained outside the Roman Dacia, it was still influenced by the Roman culture and civilization.
On the territory of Ilfov district are a lot of vestiges that prove the development of the social life since old times. The archeological digging brought remains of materials from Paleolithic and Neolithic. The Neolithic Culture is rich and well represented in the settlement from Gumelnita, Cascioarele, Vidra and the Geto-Dacians Culture trough the fortress from Popesti in Arges.
Marks of the Roman culture are frequently met in the north of the district. The written sources mention the Constantiniana-Daphne fortress settled near Oltenita. The material proofs and the written evidences tell about the process of formation of the Romanian nation and of the Romanian language. Dridu culture (discovered in the place with the same name) and spread in Muntenia, show the life that the Romanian people had in that period. It proves that in the Xth century, the population was stable and its main occupations were the agriculture and the growth of the animals, but also the iron manufacturing, fact demonstrated by the pieces of iron ore, iron dross and loops resulted from the process of using the iron ore, found on the spot.
Numerous relics of the material culture from the primitive period preserved on the territory of Buzau district. For instance, in Aldeni village the archeological research brought out vestiges from the Neolithic Age (5600-1700 BCE) At Sarata-Monteoru were made important discoveries concerning the Bronze Age (1700-700 BCE) the local artisans, specialized, were manufacturing the bronze obtained trough exchange.
Testimonials of the same Bronze Age were also recorded in Sapoca, on the edge of Vulturului from Aldeni village where is a settlement from this period at Smeeni. An important scientifically interest present the marks that attest the Geto-Dacian settlement from Carlomanesti which provide details about the life of the Romanian’s ancestors. Here were found indications about the occupations of the inhabitants: agriculture, cattle breeding, trades, specially pottery, vividly illustrated by various remains of ceramics from which we remind the dacian cup. All these discoveries prove the ancient civilization of Dacians before the apparition of the Roman conqueror.
In Ialomita district, marks of material and cultural life are attested beginning from the Neolithic, than the Iron Age, in the early feudalism and in the other periods of development of the history in our country, as a testimonials stand the vestiges discovered at Piscul Crasanilor, Gh. Doja, Movila Galdaului, Gradistea and the written sources about the customs of fish, wax and wool from Gura Ialomitei and others. The archeological excavations brought out marks of settlements and prehistoric tools, monetary storage dating from the Dacian Period.
Mehedinti district- Valea Dunarii with oasis, like the various caves that are in the district, were points of attraction and shelter from the old times till now. The archeological discoveries from the oasis Banaha, Simian, Corb attest life here since Paleolithic and Neolithic. Some settlements such as Drobeta (Turnu Severin) and Dierna (Orsova) show the beginnings of Romanian nation as a result of the fusion between Dacian and Romans.
The material proofs discovered in settlements from Valea Darjovului (close to Olt) attest the presence of people in this region (Olt district) since the inferior Paleolithic. The Stone Age is underlined by the marks of the settlements from Orlea, Gura Padinii, Vadastra, Hotarani, Farcasele, Berbeni. Form the Iron Age – the age of formation of Geto-Dacians- numerous archeological discoveries are evidence of the existence of the Dacian slave-owning state, but also of the cohabitation of Dacians with Romans (there are vestiges in Celeiu, Orlea, Movileni).
On the territory of Prahova district were discovered marks of human activity from old times. The three Roman Forts well- fortified, built around 105-106 at Targsor, Malaiesti, Drajna de Sus, had the aim to assure the guard of the channel of communication which connected South Transylvania, where was the political center of Geto-Dacians, with the regions from the south-east of Dacia. The roman presence on the territory of the district is also confirmed by other marks. In Ploiesti were discovered leavings from ceramics of roman type and coins which had marked on a side the face of the emperor Traian: the suburb from south-west is touched by “brazda lui Novac” a vast fortification on which direction can be followed until Pietroasele, where is the forth Roman Camp from the district. From the next period after the withdrawal of the Romans, the territory of the district keeps the marks of a great influence of Sarmatians and Gothics, observed while the archeological excavations in the necropolis from Targsor and Chiajdul Mic. The immense cemeteries discovered at Targsor and Ploiesti-Triaj, dating from the IIIrd and IVth century BC attests the fact that the population Daco-Romanized remained during the migration of “barbarian” people.
In Salaj district, the archeological research proved that here people found favorable conditions for living since the old times. In Buciumi is represented the Neolithic period, and in Dersida, Moigrad, Romanasi-the Bronze Age. In 1797 was discovered the well known gothic thesaurus from pieces of gold that nowadays is in Viena.
The history of Tulcea district is connected with the history of Dobrogea. The territory of the district was populated since old times. In the VIIth and VIth century BC, lived the first getic and scit tribes. In the I st century AE roman power was established. For protecting the empire, Romans built a series of Roman Camps along Danube; we remind some of them: ( Macin ), Aegyssus ( Tulcea ), Noviodunum ( Isacea ), Dinogetia ( Garvan ). Romans laid out a series of roads of connection and built fortifications of defense made by stone and ground against the migratory populations. In the second decade of the XIV-th century these places fell into the Ottoman mastery. Only after 1877 the territory from the east of Danube returns to Romania.
The Vaslui land was populated from the oldest time; the archeological discoveries from Poenesti brought to light remaining from the material culture from Neolithic till the times of migrations. On this lands the Carps lived first, followed by the Goths, the Gepids, the Slavs, the Cumans and other populations, culminating with the Tartars that were a source of danger for the indigenous due to the fact that they lived close to Vaslui for centuries.
In Valcea district were discovered marks of human settlement from Paleolithic (at Tetoiu), Neolithic and Bronze Age (at Vladesti, Govora-Sat, Ramnicu-Valcea). There are proofs that on the nowadays territory of the town Ocnele Mari was one of the biggest Dacian settlement from the south of Carparthians. The history attests the fact that in the year 105 the emperor Traian passed with the imperial army to Sarmizegetusa following the road laid on Valea Oltului. Valcea was covered by numerous roman military settlements (Rusidava, Arutela, Sargidava, Castra Traiana).
Tools made by stone discovered in Iosasel in the caves from Moneasa, at Macea, Paulis, Varsand prove the continuity of living on the territory of today’s Arad since the Palaeolithic, during the organisation of primitive settlement. Remains of settlements from the Bronze Age and Iron Age were discovered at Pecica, Simad Socodor, Siclau, Varsand, centre of Arad. Extremely important are the material proofs of the existence of a Dacian settlement. Dacian coins were discovered in more than 20 places in the district. In 1967, on the territory of Silindia village, was found a Dacian thesaurus from III century BC considered the most valuable from all discovered in our country. At Santana were found material testimonies of a settlement and a cemetery of free Dacians from the Roman period (106-271 BC).
The vestiges found on the territory of Arges district reveal the existence of some settlements from around 600.000 years ago, evidence of the development of primitive community. Few, but important discoveries of the gravel culture instituted a special event for the universal history in general, and the history of Romania, in particular.
The discoveries from the valleys of some rivers: Dambovnic, Mozacu, Neajlov and Arges attested the existence of an ancient human activity in this area, which, together with Olt and Darjov Valleys form a strong centre of gravel culture in Europe.
The organisation and the culture of Geto-Dacians, which around 100BC reached to a great wealth, are attested by the tools, coins, amphora discovered at Cetateni, powerful centre of exchange between the world of the Dacians in north and south of Carpathians, but also between Dacians and the Greek-Roman world.
Crossed by roads that go over the valleys of Siret, Bistrita and Trotus, the territory of Bacau district knew from early ages an immense human activity, attested by the numerous archaeological discoveries (the station from Lespezi – early Palaeolithic, Podeni – cucutenian Neolithic, Mandrisca and Costisa – from the Bronze Age). The necropolis of the free Dacians (settlements from Calugara-Bacau), the deposit of weapons and iron tools (over 300 pieces) discovered at Negri and others, are proofs of the intensity of the development of the Dacian society from the east of Carpathians. On the valleys of Berheanu, Siret and Bistrita were found ancient elements of the Romanian life, which introduce us, step by step, in a Middle Age dominated by amazing accomplishments during the times of Stefan cel Mare.
Marks of life, ceramics, stone tools were discovered on the territory of Bihor district, at Oradea, Sacuieni, Santandrei, remains that belong to the polished Stone Age. A special development recorded the settlements placed on the territory of the district in the metals age. At Otomani and Salcea were discovered large entrenched settlements dating from Bronze Age. For the Iron Age, in the stage of formation of the Dacian population, archeological marks demonstrate a considerable economical and cultural increase: in the area of the three Cris rivers was revealed the biggest Dacian monetary thesaurus, known till present times on the territory of our country, the thesaurus of silver objects from Oradea.
In Oradea were also discovered a necropolis and a ritual complex of a remarkable scientific value belonging to free Dacians between IV-X centuries. Together with the material remaining of the native population were discovered marks of a migratory populations that passed trough this territory.
Ceramic leavings, various stone tools, fireplaces and remains of dwellings (Bistrita, Archind, Nasaud) attest the existence on the present territory of Bistrita Nasaud district, of the Neolithic society with 4000-5000 years before our era. While the discoveries from Galatii Bistritei was identified an interesting chirurgical tool, belonging to the Dacian period from the III-II BC, the only one of this type known in the whole world. The archeological materials brought to light at Archiud, Bistrita, Sirioara where was identified a special fortress, from X-XI century, are documentary testimonials from the period of the formation of the Romanian people.
The natural conditions favored the constitution of numerous settlements in Caras Severin district from ancient times. The archeological research established that the eldest marks of the human, form the Paleolithic are settled in Baile Herculane, under the shape of two distinct cultures: one, the eldest, belongs to Middle Aurignacian (around 80.000-70.000 BC) and the second the Mesolithic settlement of Azilian type (around 12.00-8000 BC) was discovered in Pesterea Hotilor where were observed the marks of a important settlement from the second big age of stone – the Neolithic, at Liubcova, Gornea; from the copper and bronze period, we mention the settlements on the valley of Barzava, belonging to Cotofeni culture; for the iron age- settlements from Coltan, Bocsa, Ocna de Fier, Oravita, Sasca and Bania.
Numerous marks date from the period of the Roman’s mastery, the Roman Camps Areidava, Berzobia, Tibiscum, those from Farling and Teregova, also the most important roads that crossed Banat.
After Tusnad-village, the highway crosses the Sansimion village, from which, at the right comes off a local road that continues to east, passing the mountains trough Pasul Uzului (960m altitude) and descends on Valea Uzului at Darmanesti in Valea Trotusului where we meet Sincraieni locality, known because of the 80 springs of mineral water that can be found on its territory. A Dacian thesaurus containing numerous silver objects (15 cups, bracelets, brooches) discovered in the stone pit (now in the museum from Miercurea Ciuc) demonstrates that on these places lived, since the second age of iron (II century BC), a Dacian tribe, which was part of the biggest tribal union who had the center near Orastie in Sureanu Mountains, territory that was not part of the Roman Dacia. A fortress made of ground and wood from the Ist century BC, discovered at Jigodin, locality situated at 3km further on (the small spa, watering place) proves the continuity of the existence of this tribe until the IV century AC.
Coming back in Valea Muresului, we reach to Deva, the residence city of Hunedoara district, situated at the foot of the mountains Poiana Ruscai. This hill stands over the city by around 200m (371m altitude), marvelous place of guard on Valea Muresului, it had an important role in the history of Transylvania. It was used as fortified place and watching spot since the primitive age, Dacians and Romans had also small fortifications on the Dealul Cetatii (Hill of the Fortress) In XIII century begun the construction of the medieval fortress, developed in the XV-th century, attacked in 1784 by the countrymen’s army of Horea, Closca and Crisan and sold by auction around 1800 when it losses the military importance. The last time when the fortress was used happened in 1848-1849 by the revolutionary armies, soon after this moment was destroyed by an explosion.
Also in the primitive period date the vestiges of the first human settlements from the foot of the Dealul Cetatii. In feudal époque, on this place developed the city of Deva; in XIV century, the center of a military Wallachian district. In the XV th century, Deva was mastered my Iancu de Hunedoara and for a while, it hosted a manor of the hospodar of Transylvania.
Small provincial town in the past, known by its amazing settlement, Deva began developing after becoming the residence of Hunedoara district. Today presents importance from economic, social, cultural and administrative point of view, here being concentrated economic centres of the energetic industry, the mining industry, but also considerable cultural institutions, a noted museum and a theatre.
In the same time, Deva is also a visited touristic centre, being an attraction due to its beautiful position, but also because of some particular monuments. From among the touristic objectives of the city we mention: the civic centre, the district park (where we can find at the entrance the statue of Decebal), the district museum of archaeology which owns a valuable documentary concerning the development of the society on the territory of the district from the eldest times until today. The museum contains a precious archaeological collection, most of the exhibits coming from the Dacian fortresses and roman settlements, numerous in the region. Nevertheless, the main attraction for the tourists remains the fortress of Deva owed to the wonderful view over the city, the Valea Muresului and the mountains that are between.
Various paths lead to the park of the city towards the top of the hill surrounded by the three of the precincts of the fortress. A rich vegetation formed of around 1300 species (some of them unique) provide a pleasant climbing, the final reward being the halting place from the top with the amazing panorama that enchants the view.
In the district are organised excursions at the museum of archaeology Sarmizegetusa, the museum of mining from Petrosani, ethnographic museum Orastie, the museum from Aurel Vlaicu, dedicated to the famous aviator, Castelul Corvinilor, castle declared museum, the dendrological park from Simeria seen as a museum.
BARBOSI – GALATI
The highway, on which we continue our way to Galati, follows the left bank of Siret, to east and passes soon trough Barbosi village, an important archaeological place. The diggings made here in the last years brought to light vestiges that proves that this place was an important settlement ever since VI-V century BC. In the period of roman control was constructed near Tirighina (or Gherghina) a citadel that guarded the important ford of Danube from the ending of Siret and the commercial road that came from Dobrogea (from Dinogetia), going up on Siret, crossing the Valea Trotusului in Transylvania. About this roman citadel, “The citadel of Traian” the chronicles of Moldavia, Miron Costin and Dimitrie Cantemir, remind in their writings.
We can organize Tours that include – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESCOVERIES.